The world is shrinking and leaders from different cultures are finding that they need to work together. The cultures are formed of geography, faith, gender, generation, organization and sector. And in a global world, where problems cross borders between cultures, we need leaders who can cross those boundaries and cross cultures too; people who can communicate effectively and build diverse networks necessary to solve messy problems. We need leaders who don’t just shy away from difference but gravitate towards it. They don’t see heterogeneity as threatening; they see it as creative, exciting, inspiring and enriching. These are the leaders with Cultural Intelligence (CQ).
Yet wherever you go in the world, people are being thrown together and are struggling to adapt and get on. Old and new divides are being crossed. Populations are becoming more diverse. Communication technology means that ‘global’ business is no longer just the remit of a few large organizations, but is increasingly the ambition of small businesses and individuals. It is also happening with sectors; the boundaries are blurring between the public, private and NGO sectors and leaders are struggling to understand one another.
Cultural Intelligence (CQ) is the natural evolution from the now well-established notions of Intelligence Quotient (IQ) and Emotional Intelligence (EQ). Good leaders need all three if they are to lead effectively.
CQ differs from IQ in the fact that it cannot be quantified by a score. There is no simple Cultural Intelligence scale by which to measure ourselves against, and indeed it is unhelpful to think of CQ as a number.
Instead we should think of Cultural Intelligence as being something which we can continuously improve and develop over the duration of our lives. The difficulty is in acquiring it. We do this through our experiences, but also with knowledge imparted by other people whom we trust – and who trust us enough to give us their knowledge.
The Eight Poles assessment, developed by Julia Middleton, is a structured way of using our networks to get feedback along our CQ journey.
Understanding what Core and Flex are, and how they work, is the key to developing CQ.
Our Core comprises the things that define us: our own personal 'over my dead body' list. These are things that won't change (or won't change easily). Their solidity is our strength. In our Flex are things that we can choose to change - things that we can adapt to circumstances, or to other people or other cultures. Their fluidity is equally our strength.
Core and Flex cover more than just our principles - they also account for everything from spirit and identity to behaviours and habits – from grand beliefs to small actions. Sir John Parker gives a good account of some behavioural values he is able to Flex, and how this represents more than just etiquette:
‘You must bow in Japan; it is how you show deference. At home, I might do this in another way but, in Japan, I do it their way. You simply have to take account of where you are, and show people that you have done so. You have to get the basics of the Flex right: when to bow, when to smile, how to show that you are polite. This does not mean that you have to change who you are, but it does change how you express it. You have to figure out how other human beings, who have grown up in a different culture and society from you, express their honesty and integrity in their own way, and then you must do it in the same way.’
Once we've worked out what is Core and what is Flex for us, we need to keep them in review. Testing. Weeding. And transplanting. To make sure that the right things are in the right places. And our Flex is actually Flexing.
A well defined Core and Flex, kept under constant review is key to Cultural Intelligence because it equips us with the ability to experience new situations and adapt to other people without fear of losing ourselves – changing and accommodating without ever compromising on what matters.
Keeping our Core and Flex under review also helps to keep our biases under control. Although it can be sometimes tough to admit, we all hold biases in one form or another. They are the knots in our Core that we know should not be there. And for those of us who have experienced prejudice ourselves, it is especially important to scrutinize our Core for biases (because we have them too) and move them to Flex. They need to face the light and air. They need to be regularly dusted down, examined and tested. Because, for leaders, they produce blind spots and they cause us to miss opportunities.
"In our ever more complex and interconnected world which has no obvious historical parallel, Common Purpose has developed a breakthrough idea about the importance of Cultural Intelligence in order to navigate both this new world and its contradictions. It has important implications and raises questions about our current systems for those of us involved in educating and developing our future global citizens."
Big problems can no longer - if they ever could - be solved by one person, one culture, or even one continent, operating alone. So leading across boundaries through collaboration is crucial.
Organizations face challenges internally; requiring their separate divisions - production, sales, marketing, and finance - and their leaders to collaborate. Cities need the public, private and not-for-profit sectors to find ways to work more effectively together, if they are to use their resources and assets to best effect. Countries and continents face global problems of an order that requires old and new divides to be crossed.
The world is crying out for innovation: new ways, new ideas, new processes, new technologies, and new ventures. The secret of innovation is that it comes best from well-led discord. The enemy is 'group-think'. Culturally diverse groups - led by leaders with CQ - see things differently. Innovation needs people who actively seek to encourage difference. To prod it, push it, test it, enjoy it and thrive on it. People who want to de-harness - even if they secretly know that they have no real idea where it might take them, just that it won't be where they went before.
Today, many businesses can be described as global – even small businesses and entrepreneurs are taking advantage of sophisticated advances in communication technology. And if you are looking to expand your business overseas and take your company global then Cultural Intelligence is vital.
Jim Sutcliffe is Managing Partner at Arboretum Partners LLP and Chairman of Sun Life Financial in Canada. He stresses the business value of CQ in helping managers to see the wider context in which the company operates:
‘You need CQ to run a business today, because, in the long run, you will make more money with CQ. I know we have all thought business was about products, customers, finances and people, but it’s more than that now. You have to understand the context in which you are operating and the communities you are part of. You have to work with other sectors and, if you are international, in other countries, and you need it not just at the top, but right through the business. Without it, you won’t judge when to stand firm and when to give way, when to spend money, whether you like it or not. Without it, you will walk into impossible, messy situations that are sometimes at least partly of your own making. And, when the solutions do not lie in financial models, better products or new technologies, you will make bad judgments, because none of those things are much use when you are dealing with the media and politics, and you find yourself and your company in the public eye.’
Cultural Intelligence is vital for those of us who are based in different countries and especially so for those who regularly travel abroad to work. Otherwise, they risk becoming one of the Flying Dead - people who fly around the world, stop every now and then and are expected to deliver, with no real idea where they are (and, increasingly, who they are).
Globalization has meant that there are more potential Flying Dead leaders than ever before. Many, of course, would claim to have CQ in abundance. Unfortunately, they measure it in Air Miles. The real challenge for them is to get enough CQ so that, when they land, they understand where they are and who they’re talking to, and then use what they have learned to succeed.
The leaders who fail to do this will just continue collecting stamps on their passports without really touching down anywhere they land, while the ones who do it well will become the bridge-builders who can genuinely change the world.
Four million students currently travel to study and this number is set to increase to eight million by 2020 (UNESCO). Many of that number are studying in the Magnet Cities of the world - where 100 or more nationalities convene to study.
To be a student in such a city is an incredible opportunity to learn CQ. However, we know that many students are not taking advantage of this - instead they choose to ‘stick with their own’. For example, it has been shown that many mainland Chinese students, who come to the UK to study, actually see their English language skills deteriorate by the end of their first year, through talking exclusively with other mainland Chinese students. Similar cases of missed opportunities to learn from one another can be seen in universities across the world.
© Bill Knight
Several hundred students were polled in a survey conducted by Common Purpose. We saw that in principle, there was a genuine willingness to interact and learn from other cultures, but ultimately there was a lack of substantial engagement. Read the full results of the CQ Quiz for students.
This demonstrates why it is so necessary for students to develop CQ – so they can better engage with other cultures in a deep and meaningful way and take advantage of the unique learning opportunity the university experience presents. This is especially the case for those studying as (or with) international students - who are well positioned to become global leaders.
Organizations frequently appoint leaders for their IQ. Then, years later, sack them for their lack of EQ (Emotional Intelligence).
Is CQ (Cultural Intelligence) about to become the way to differentiate them?
In the first edition of this book, Julia Middleton explained the importance of Cultural Intelligence (CQ). She showed how it can give leaders the framework and the language they need to cross boundaries, so they can successfully lead teams of people who are not like them (or each other).
This second edition goes further: into the cultural collisions that can spark real innovation if the leader at the centre of them has CQ. How do you lead effectively when cultures collide within the team? And, even more intriguing, what do you do when cultures collide inside yourself?
For this new edition, Julia has discussed these collisions with leaders of all generations, in countries all over the world. She shares experiences and insights that are painful, funny and wise. For anyone trying to lead across boundaries, this is an indispensable companion.
All royalties from the book go to Common Purpose.